The College of St. Scholastica

Undergraduate Catalog

School of Sciences

Biology Department | Chemistry Department | Gerontology Program | Mathematics Department | Natural Science and Social Sciences Majors | Physical and Earth Sciences | Psychology and Sociology Department |


See Chemistry Department

Biology Department

Biology in the broadest sense is the study of life. It is a diverse subject and understanding it requires a background in all the sciences. The biologist must understand the basics of physics,chemistry,math and the social sciences as they relate to living systems. He/she must also be able to synthesize that knowledge in order to understand the living world, a world that is both remarkably unified and wonderfully diverse.

The Biology Department's goal is to provide the student majoring in the discipline with a sufficiently broad-based exposure to the biological sciences so that the student can compete successfully for employment at the baccalaureate level or gain acceptance into, and successfully complete, a related program of professional/graduate study.

The Biology Department seeks to provide the student with the best possible educational experience and consistently strives to improve the educational experience based on student needs.
Chair:Douglas K.Walton, Ph.D.

Biology major

A major in biology requires 32 semester credits - see tracks for specific course requirements. Biology courses must have a minimum grade of 'C' to complete the requirements of the major. Application to the biologymajor ismade during the spring semester of the sophomore year. See the Biology Student Handbook formore details.

Biology tracks:

  1. Graduate school or research preparation:
    BIO 1110,1120,3500,4170, one course from the following:
    BIO 3210 or 3220,electives to equal 32 total biology credits.
    CHM 1110, 1120, 2200, 2210, 3240.
    PSC 2001, 2002.
    MTH 2211 or 2221.
    Recommended:a chemistry minor (requires completion of CHM3000 - Analytical Chemistry), a biology or chemistry research experience, PSY 3330 - Research Methods, PSY 3331 - Statistics, computer science,calculus series MTH 2221-2222, MTH 4411. See track schema in the Biology Student Handbook for more recommendations. The student is urged to consult catalogs of desired graduate schools for any special requirements.
  2. Forensics (DNA Analyst) preparation:
    BIO 1110, 1120, 2210, 2220, 2250, 3500, 4150, 4160, one course from the following:
    BIO 3220 or 4170.
    CHM 1110, 1120, 2200, 2210, 3000, 3240. This course work is sufficient for a chemistry minor. PSC 2001, 2002.
    MTH 2211 or 2221, MTH 4411 (prereq MTH 2221 and 2222) or PSY 3331.
    Recommended: BIO 3020, 3600, 4135,CHM 4120,a biology or chemistry research experience, PSY 3330 - Research Methods, computer science, calculus series 2221-2222. See track schema in the Biology Student Handbook formore recommendations. The student is urged to consult catalogs of desired graduate schools for any special requirements.
  3. Medical school preparation:
    BIO 1110, 1120, 2110, 2120, 2250, 3130, 3500, one course from the following:
    BIO 3210 or 3220 or 4170.
    CHM 1110, 1120, 2200, 2210, 3240.
    PSC 2001, 2002.
    MTH 2211 or 2221. Four courses of humanities (to include two composition courses and two other humanities courses, one of which must be an upper-division course.) Eight credits in PSY or SOC including one upper-division course. See track schema in the Biology Student Handbook for recommendations. The student is urged to consult catalogs of desired medical schools for any special requirements.
  4. Secondary teaching preparation:
    BIO 1110, 1120, 2110, 2120, 3500, 4170, one of the following:
    BIO 3210 or 3220, electives to equal 32 total biology credits. Transfer students who have completed the equivalent of BIO4170 elsewheremay be required to take a coursewith a research component.
    CHM 1110, 1120 (or CHM 1021, CHM 1025, CHM 1035, BIO 1036).
    MTH 1111.
    ESC 1202.
    PSC 1201 (or PSC 2001, 2002), PSC 4150. NSC 3335 -must take as a co-requisite with NSC 3333. NSC 3333 -must take as a co-requisite or as a prerequisite for EDU 3800. General requirements for secondary licensure as listed in the Education section of the catalog. Recommended: BIO 2250, 3210, 3220. The above is based on current information and is subject to change.The student needs to regularly consult with the Education Department for further information.
  5. Predentistry, prepharmacy and other preprofessional fields follow the premedicine track. The student is urged to consult catalogs of desired professional schools for any special requirements.
  6. Cytotechnology preparation:
    BIO 1110, 1120, 2110, 2120, 2250, 3500, 4140, electives to equal 32 total biology credits.
    CHM1110,1120 (CHM1021,1025,1035 and BIO 1035 may be substituted with departmental advisement.)
    MTH 1111.
    Recommended:PSC 1201 or 2001 and 2002; CIS 1007 and CIS 1008; CHM 2200, 2210, 3240. The student also needs an internship in a cytotechnology school to be a cytotechnologist. One year of internship in an approved cytotechnology program is equivalent to 32 semester credits of upperdivision biology coursework.The internship is taken in the senior year.
  7. Cytogenetics preparation:
    BIO 1110,1120,2110,2120,2250,3500,electives to equal 32 total biology credits.
    CHM 1110, 1120, 2200, 2210, 3240.
    MTH 2211 (or Psy 3331 and MTH 1111).
    Recommended: BIO 3020, 3600, 4125, 4135, 4140, 4210, 4220, PSC 2001 and 2002. The student also needs an internship in a cytogenetics school to be a cytogeneticist. One year of internship in an approved cytogenetics program is equivalent to 32 semester credits of upper-division biology coursework. The internship is taken in the senior year.

Biology minor

A minor in biology requires 22 semester credits: One or more of these three courses (BIO 1110, BIO 1120, BIO/CHM 1036), additional biology credits,chosenwith advisement, to equal at least 22 semester credits. Sixteen of the 22 credits must be courses with numbers 2000 or higher. Biology coursesmust have aminimumgrade of 'C' to complete the requirements of the minor.

Biology Department outcomes:

Students graduating with a degree in biology will:

  1. Be sufficiently prepared in the discipline to compete successfully for employment at the baccalaureate level or gain acceptance into, and successfully complete, a related program of professional/graduate study. Students who complete a degree in biology at The College of St. Scholastica are therefore expected to be able to demonstrate competency in the various areas of disciplinary knowledge and laboratory skills.
  2. Demonstrate effectivewritten communication skills.
  3. Demonstrate effective oral communication skills.

Chemistry Department

A classic definition of chemistry is "the branch of science concerned with the properties and transformations of matter." Chemists are interested in asking and answering questions such as:

  • How many molecules of water are there in a raindrop?
  • What causes acid rain and how can it be prevented?
  • How can we tell if the paint in an old house contains lead?
  • Why does salt melt ice off the sidewalk in winter?
  • Is gasoline the best fuel to use for transportation?

Indeed, chemistry has been called the "central science"because of its importance in other fields such as biology, agriculture,medicine, geology, nutrition, law enforcement and engineering. Without knowledge of chemistry, humans could not grow enough food, combat disease, drink clean water, clothe themselves, create artwork, or clean up some of the environmental messes they have made and prevent worse damage to the Earth. Understanding chemistry helps humans appreciate the beauty of the natural world that lies below the surface of creation.
Chair: Paul Stein, Ph.D.

The Chemistry Department offers these programs:

Biochemistry Major

This degree program emphasizes the role of chemical processes in living systems through a combination of coursework in biology, chemistry, and allied fields. It is appropriate for students interested in pursuing an advanced degree in biochemical sciences, forensic science, medicine (including pharmacy, dentistry, optometry, physician's assistant), or for those seeking entry-level employment in the biochemistry or biotechnology industry.

Required courses: CHM 1110, 1120, 2200, 2210, 3000, 3240, 3430, 3431, 3460; BIO 1110 or 1120(preferred), 2250, 3500, 3600; PSC 2001, 2002; MTH 2221, 2222; and 8 additional credits in upper-division BIO or CHM courses. Each professional school may have additional, specific admission requirements. Preprofessional students should consultwith their advisor and professional school catalogs for further details. A student majoring in Chemistry may earn a second degree in biochemistry by completing the additional course requirements.

Chemistry major

This degree program provides a solid foundation in the sub-disciplines of organic, analytical, physical, inorganic, and biochemistry coupled with a research experience. The chemistry major is designed for students intent on advanced study in chemistry or related disciplines, as well as those seeking entry-level employment as a chemist. Students may combine a chemistry major with the appropriate coursework in biology and social sciences as preparation for professional school in medicine, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, and physician's assistant. Please consult a chemistry faculty advisor and professional school catalogs for further details.

Required courses, graduate school track: CHM 1110, 1120, 2200, 2210, 3000, 3220, 3240, 3460, 3470, 4020, 4060, 4120, and 4 credits of CHM electives;MTH 2221, 2222, 3322;PSC 2001, 2002. Employment as entry-level chemist track: same as graduate school track,but suggested electives include ECN 2280 or 4430; PSY 3331; ACC 2210; MGT 1110 or 2120.

Middle/Secondary Chemistry Education major

This program is specifically designed for students seeking Minnesota licensure (grades 5-12 or 9-12).Note: more than four years are required to complete the licensure requirements unless students enter the College with advanced standing.

Required courses CHM 1110, 1120, 2200, 2210, 3000,3240,3460,3470,4020,4060;BIO 1104;PSC 2001,2002,4150;ESC 1202;MTH 2211;EDU 1500, 1505, 2102, 2200, 2300, 2800, 2805, 3250, 3333, 3335, 3800, 4700, 4710. Registration in all EDU courses 2500 or higher requires acceptance into the EDU program. The student should have both a chemistry and education faculty advisor.

Chemistry minor

The minor is designed to provide basic competency in general, organic, and analytical chemistry for students not majoring in Biochemistry or Chemistry. Required courses: CHM1110,1120, 2200, 2210, and 3000. No substitutions or exchanges are permitted for these courses.

Departmental policies

Students apply for admission to the chemistry or biochemistry major in the spring semester of their second year or after they have completed the CHM 1110, 1120, 2220, 2210, 3000. A completed application to major form, and essay are submitted to the department chair. Application to the minor may be made to the department chair after completing CHM 1110, 1120, and 2200.


Students admitted to the major must have an overall 2.0 grade point average and a minimum of grade of C- in all required courses. Aminimum grade of C- is required in all courses in the minor.


Students must earn a minimum of C- in all courses required for the major and remain in good academic standing with the College to maintain status as a Chemistry or Biochemistry major.Beyond the minimum grade performance, students are expected to be involved in the community life of the department through attendance at its seminars, involvement in chemistry volunteer and outreach activities, participation in social functions, cooperation with program assessment activities,and if qualified,by serving as a teaching assistant.

Chemistry Department outcomes

Students graduatingwith a degree in Chemistry or Biochemistry will:

  1. possess understanding of the discipline sufficient to attend graduate or professional schools or enter the workforce as entrylevel scientists;
  2. collect, analyze, and present data accurately and understandably;
  3. communicate technical information effectively in both written and oral form; and
  4. make ethical andmoral choices in their professional and private lives.

Gerontology Program

Gerontology is the study of the biological, psychological and social aspects of aging. An understanding of aging is useful inmany fields of work including nursing, social work, psychology, medicine, occupational and physical therapy, exercise physiology, economics and management. Thus, the study of aging complements many majors. Given the dramatic increase in the number of older adults expected in the United States in the next 30 years, those with preparation in gerontology will be best prepared to meet the demands of our aging population.
Program Director: Angela Rosenberg Hauger, Ph.D., L.P.

Gerontology minor/certificate

The GerontologyMinor/Certificate program provides students with a strong foundation in gerontology, preparing them to work with and advocate for older adults. The program is structured so students are able to individualize their courses of study to fit their career needs. Typically, degree-seeking students choose the minor and non-degree seeking students choose the certificate. The equivalent of 20 credits are required, and the requirements for the minor and certificate are the same.


Core courses (8 credits total): GER 3315 and GER 3316
Electives (8 credits fromthe following):GER 2203, GER 3310,GER 3318,GER 3325*,GER 3341*,GER 3424, GER 3470*, GER 3777, GER 4125, and GER 4444. PTH 5513 and PTH 6567 or OTH 6524 count as 4 elective credits. *Only one of these courses may be used as an elective course.
Gerontology Directed Applied Project or equivalent: GER 4555 (4 credits) or GER 4556/5556 (0 or 1 credit) with supervised field work for credit as required by the student's major.

Application to minor/certificate

Students must be enrolled at the College. Application to the minor/ certificate program involves a short consultation with the program director to plan course work. There are no other requirements.


Upon completion of the Gerontology minor or certificate, the student will:

  1. Appreciate the interdisciplinary nature of gerontology.
  2. Demonstrate mastery of the biopsychosocial content area of gerontology.
  3. Communicate about gerontological matters, demonstrating appropriate application of terms and content.
  4. Demonstrate competency in accessing gerontological research findings and integrating these findings with other scholarly information and personal observations.
  5. Understand howlifelong learning enhances quality of life for adults.

Mathematics Department

In brief terms, mathematics is not something a student takes, but rather something which he or she creates. Whether a student wants to teach math, plans graduate study, plans to apply mathematics in a career in industry or desires the ability to reason logically and analytically, the study of mathematics adds up to an intellectual experience which, from the abacus to the rocket, has been essential to civilization.

The Mathematics Department offers an undergraduate program in mathematics. Students may prepare for graduate study or for careers in secondary education or industry. Students may also prepare to teach elementary grades and select a Mathematics minor.
Chair: Luther Qson, Ph.D.

Mathematics major

Core courses: MTH 2221, 2222, 2401, 3321, 3322, 4332, 4411, and 4500
Preparation for graduate school or general job opportunities: MTH 4421 and 10 credits of upper-division electives of math; CIS 2085. Additional electives are encouraged. Other options for a major may be designed by the individual student in consultation with the department. Programs must be approved by the Mathematics Department and contain at least 10 credits of upper level math electives and a CIS course.

All Mathematics major students are required to take MTH 4500-Senior Seminar to do independent reading or research and present their papers in their junior or senior year. Mathematics majors are encouraged to take more computer courses than the minimum required. Consult with the Mathematics Department for appropriate courses.

Middle/secondary Mathematics Education major:

Core courses:MTH 2221, 2222, 2401, 3321, 3322, 4332, 4411, and 4500
Preparation for teaching: MTH 3302, 3533, 3535, 4421 and two credits of upper-division electives ofmath; CIS 2085 or demonstrated mastery of a high level computer language approved by the department. Students should also see the Secondary Education Licensure Program requirements published by the Education Department.

Mathematics minor

Courses required for Mathematics minors: MTH 2221,2222,2401,3322 and six credits of electives of upper level math courses approved by the Mathematics Department.

Mathematics Specialty for Elementary/Middle Education major

This specialty is designed to give a breadth of study in mathematics suitable for teaching math in grades 5-8. Students must apply for admission to this concentration and obtain approval of the elective courses from the Mathematics Department to insure an appropriate balance of courses.

The requirements are a minimum total of 20 credits in Mathematics courses numbered above 1111 approved by the Mathematics Department, including:
Math for Elementary School Teachers - MTH 1116 or Mathematical Ideas I/II -MTH 1113/1114
Discrete Math - MTH 2401
Geometry - MTH 3302 and a combination of 8 credits fromthe following:
Elementary Functions II - MTH 1122
Short Calculus - MTH 2211
Calculus I - MTH 2221
Calculus II - MTH 2222
Probability and Statistics - MTH 4411

Departmental policies

Students apply for admission to the Mathematics major in the spring semester of their second year or after they have taken MTH 2221, 2222, 3321, 3322. For instructions of application to themajor, please see the department chair for details. Application to the minor may be made to the department chair after completing MTH 2221, 2222 and 3322.

Admission and retention

Students admitted to the major must have an overall 2.0 GPA and a minimum of grade of C in all requiredmath courses.Studentsmust keep a minimum of C in all courses required for the major and remain in good academic standing with the College to maintain status as a Mathematics major.

Program outcomes

Mathematics major graduates will be able to:

  1. communicate mathematical ideas and concepts correctly and clearly both in oral and written forms using mathematical structures, terminology and symbolic representations;
  2. demonstrate competency in mathematical knowledge and skills, and apply them to other disciplines and to solve real-world problems in their careers;
  3. use a variety of professional literature resources and apply technology appropriately;
  4. prepare and undertake scholarly investigations and activities and take responsibility for continuing their own learning;
  5. demonstrate knowledge and appreciation of the history and philosophy of mathematics and its impact on civilization.

Natural Science and Social Sciences Majors

Dean: Lawrence McGahey, Ph.D.
Two school majors culminating in a bachelor of arts degree are offered by the School of Sciences, one in Natural Sciences and the other in Social Sciences.These majors afford students an opportunity to explore a wide breadth of areas in the natural or social sciences or arrange a course of study in fields that are not represented by current majors offered by departments in the School of Sciences.

Although a degree in Natural or Social Sciences may be appropriate for entry-level employment, students should be aware that the schoolmajor is not intended to provide sufficient depth of preparation for admission to a graduate program in a specific natural or social science. Students who wish to earn a the natural or social sciences degree are strongly encouraged to meet with the Dean of the School of Sciences in the fall semester of the sophomore year to evaluate the appropriateness of the degree for their long-term career goals.

The school major is intended for students who are not seeking a baccalaureate degree in any other programat the College. For this reason, the school major ordinarily is not an appropriate second major. Students earning a bachelor of arts degree at the College must earn a total of 128 semester credits (with a minimum of 42 credits at the 3000- level or higher), satisfy the Benedictine Liberal Arts Education Program, and fulfill the requirements for a major.

Natural Sciences Major

The school major in Natural Sciences requires a minimum of 36 credits in courses which carry a BIO, CHM, ESC, MTH, NSC/SSC, or PSC prefix. Of the 36 credits, 20must be earned in one natural science department and 16 credits must be chosen from courses at the 3000-level or higher. The balance of credits needed for graduation should be selected in consultation with the student's academic advisor and the Dean to ensure that the student's individual educational and career objective can be attained.

Social Sciences major

The school major in Social Sciences requires a minimum of 36 credits in courses which carry a PSY, SOC,GER, ECN, or POL prefix. At the Dean's discretion, courses with other prefixes that have a strong social science emphasis may be counted toward the major. The 36 credits must be distributed such that 16 credits are at the 3000-level or higher, at least 16 credits are earned in one department, and at least 8 credits are earned in a second department. The B.A. in Social Sciences may be a good preparation for graduatework in several professional areas even though it provides insufficient background for a graduate program in a specific social science.

* Application

A student seeking to earn a B.A. in the Natural or Social Sciences should first schedule an appointment with the Dean of the School of Sciences or a designated advisor to discuss the appropriateness of the natural science or social science major and a proposed course of study. Students submit the application to major form and an essay to the Dean. The essay should explain how earning a B.A. in Natural or Social Sciences advances the educational and career goals of the student.

* Admission and retention

Students admitted to a School of Sciences major a studentmust be in good academic standing at the College and shall earn aminimum of C- in all courses applied toward themajor to be retained. A cumulative grade point average of 2.0 is required for graduation.

School of Science major outcomes

A student graduating with a B.A. in Natural or Social Sciences from The College of St. Scholastica will:

  1. understand the broad relationships and connections among the disciplines studied;
  2. understand the most basic and essential principles of at least one discipline; and
  3. communicate his or her analysis of a problem or evaluation of a proposition accurately and intelligibly from the view of a natural or social scientist, as appropriate.

Physical and Earth Sciences

Courses offered in this unit serve one of two purposes: to provide experiences in those areas of science which are necessary or useful to majors in other fields or to provide general or interdisciplinary courses in the physical and earth sciences which may be elected by students who desire to increase their knowledge of science. There is no Physical Science major or minor. Administratively, the unit is part of the Chemistry and Physical Science Department, Dr. Paul Stein, Chair.

Dual Degree Engineering B.A./B.S.

For students who believe that their lives will be enriched by liberal studies,but who also wish to pursue an engineering degree, the Dual Degree Program provides an opportunity to earn two undergraduate degrees in a period of five or six years. In the Dual Degree Program, students attend The College of St. Scholastica for three years, taking introductory courses in science, mathematics and humanities and then transfer to the Institute of Technology (IT) of the University of Minnesota for an additional two or (more often) three years to take engineering courses. At the time that the student qualifies for the B.S. degree in Engineering at the IT, she or hewill also be awarded a B.A. degree in the Natural Sciences from The College of St. Scholastica.

The IT offers programs in aerospace, biomedical, biosystems and agricultural, chemical, civil, computer, electrical, geological, materials science and mechanical engineering.

Requirements and procedures for B.A./B.S. Dual Degree Program:

  1. The student will complete a minimum of 96 credits at The College of St. Scholastica, to include: all of the General Education requirements; the following courses: CHM 1110,1120; PSC 2001, 2002; MTH 2221, 2222, 3321, 3322, 3323; CHM3460,3470 for chemical engineering; CIS 2085 for all programs except civil, geological engineering andmaterials science. In order to complete the necessary coursework for this program, entering students should be able to successfully completeMTH 2221:Calculus I and CHM 1110: General Chemistry I the first semester at CSS. Studentswho are not prepared to take these classes immediately without remedial coursework generally are poor candidates for the Dual Degree Engineering Program.
  2. In the first year of residency at St. Scholastica, the student should secure from the College Dual Degree advisor the IT brochures for Dual Degree and for the student's desired engineering program, and should carefully note the lower-division requirements for that program, making every effort to achieve as many of those requirements at St. Scholastica as possible.
  3. The IT recommends that Dual Degree candidates take the lower-division engineering courses at IT during summer sessions if at all possible. If it is not possible to do this, the studentwill have to plan on three years at IT to complete these preliminary requirements in addition to the upper-division courses. Students are encouraged to check the University of Minnesota-Duluth Catalog to see if any of these courses are available there, and/or to take summer courses at the IT.
  4. A minimum GPA, particularly in science and math courses, of 2.8 is required for consideration for IT admission.
  5. The student will apply for IT admission during the third year of residency at St.Scholastica, ideally between November 1 and January 31. Special application forms are available from the St. Scholastica Dual Degree advisor.
  6. The student will complete an engineering program at IT. At that time, the St. Scholastica degreewill be granted. Application for the St. Scholastica degree should be made in January of the year in which the student expects to receive his/her degree from the University.

Dual Degree Engineering B.A./M.S.

Students who wish to complete their undergraduate degree at The College of St.Scholastica in Chemistry, Biology or Mathematics may then apply for admission to appropriate engineering graduate programs at the Institute of Technology, if they have completed the Dual Degree course requirements listed in the previous section. See the St.Scholastica Dual Degree Advisor for further information on this option.

Psychology and Sociology Department

The mission of the Psychology/Sociology Department at The College of St. Scholastica is to advance the understanding of human behavior and the scientific method used to study it. The Psychology faculty advance this mission by offering courses, providing consultation and sponsoring professionally related cocurricular activities. The faculty goal is to help Psychology majors prepare for post-baccalaureate careers or graduate school and to provide nonmajors in our service courses with a strong psychological science foundation for integration with their majors. The core value underlying the mission of the department is the conviction that psychological science offers research-supported principles of great utility for understanding human thinking and behavior and for solving many individual, interpersonal and societal problems. The lifespan developmental perspective, sensitivity to diversity and experiential learning are emphasized throughout the curriculum.
Chair: Gerald Henkel-Johnson, Psy.D.

Psychology major

Required courses: PSY 1105, 2208, 3216, 3222, 3320, 3327, 3330, 3331, 3423, 4000, 4334. 4335, 4435, six credits of 4555 (DAPP) or 4556 option for double-majors, six credits of PSY electives, and BIO 1102. Only two credits from PSY 2555, 3555, 4444, or 4999 may be applied to the electives requirement, although more credits may be taken if desired.

Human Services concentration

The Human Services Concentration (HSC) is an option within the Psychology major. It provides a focus for future work experience at the baccalaureate degree level,aswell as for direct services graduate programs such as a Psy.D.
Coordinator: Gerald Henkel-Johnson, Psy.D.

Required courses:
In addition to the requirements of the basic Psychology major, HSC students will also complete: three credits of PSY 2555 or 3555 (two credits also count toward the basicmajor) prior to doing the PSY 4555 DAPP, four credits of PSY electives beyond the four credits required for the basic major, and four credits of non-PSY HSC electives. Students choose electives, in consultation with their HSC advisor, from those listed in the HSC Handbook at the Psychology/Sociology Department Web site. To complete PSY and HSC requirements within four years, students should apply for HSC during the junior year.

Psychology minor

The minor in Psychology is structured to provide a sampling of themain areas of psychology. Students choose one four-credit course or two two credit courses from each of these five areas: (a) PSY 1105 or 2208; (b) PSY 3222, 3327, 3328, and/or 3363; (c) PSY 3216, 3306, 3423, and/or 3424; (d) four credits selected by the student from the following: 3216,3222,3228,3304,3306, 3315, 3320, 3325, 3327, 3328, 3340, 3341, 3363, 3423, 3424, 3430, 3470, 3550,and/or 2777/3777/ 4777 (or any courses that were not already selected in the two Advanced Content categories above); and (e) PSY 3330 or 3331.

Application and admission

Prospective Psychology majors should apply in their last semester of sophomore standing (junior standing begins at 61 credits) by meeting with the chair of the Psychology/Sociology Department. Prior to meeting with the department chair, applicantsmust have completed PSY 1105 and PSY 2208 (or equivalent transfer courses) with grades of C or higher. It is also expected that applicants will have read the Psychology Student Undergraduate Handbook at the Psychology/Sociology Department Web site, including the instructions for preparing for the information interview.


Psychologymajors should have Psychology faculty advisors. Double majors with non-Psychology advisors must secure a secondary advisor among Psychology faculty. DAPP advisors must be Psychology faculty.


Majors must have grades of C or better in all courses that are required for the major. The psychology faculty as a group annually reviews Psychology majors' professional plans, special interests,academic progress and special difficulties. In order to obtain a well-rounded education outside the classroom that can result in stronger resumes for job or graduate school application and in stronger letters of recommendation, Psychology majors are encouraged to be familiar with and take advantage of the cocurricular opportunities described in the Psychology Undergraduate Student Handbook (available at the Psychology/Sociology Department's Web site).

Transfer courses

Consistent with the College's residence requirement, a minimum of 16 of the credits required for the Psychology major must be earned at The College of St. Scholastica. Usually the minimum 16 creditswould consist of the Psychology/Sociology Department's three senior-level capstone courses: PSY 4334/4335, 4435, and 4555. In order to qualify for a Psychology minor, at least three of the five required areas must be completed with courses taken at The College of St. Scholastica. To count toward the minor, transfer courses must be very similar in content to The College of St.Scholastica courses as determined from catalog descriptions or syllabi provided by the student. If transfer courses that match the content of St. Scholastica courses have less credit, additional PSY elective courses need to be taken in order to bring the total up to 52 for the major and 20 for the minor.

Waiver of requirements

Students who wish to modify or substitute some requirement of the Psychology major may do so by writing a letter to the department chair explaining the circumstances and rationale. The Psychology faculty will decide on the merits of the waiver request.

Student Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes of Psychology majors encompass six areas: knowledge, research, integration, application, scientific attitude and professional development. The specific outcomes are:

  1. Psychology majors will compare very favorablywith those students completing similar programs nationally in their knowledge of specific content areas, i.e., (a) the major perspectives from which psychologists examine behavior and (b) the basic concepts and theories of the field.
  2. Psychology majors will plan, implement and report in APA style an empirical research project that integrates skills in (a) conceptualizing and stating research questions, (b) synthesizing and evaluating multiple sources of information from the literature, (c) researchmethodology, (d) statistical analysis, (e)written report writing, (f ) conference-style oral and poster presentation.
  3. Psychology majors will understand and be able to explain the historical origins of contemporary psychological thought, the great person vs. Zeitgeist approaches and the historiography of psychology and apply those ideas to their own model of psychology.
  4. Psychology majors will work cooperatively, responsibly and ethically with personnel and clients in applied settings to apply psychological principles through supervised practice and through written and oral explanations of the connections between their field experiences and observations with preceding coursework, ethical issues and personal values and career perceptions and plans.
  5. Psychology majors will explain and apply what itmeans to "think like a scientific psychologist" in the following areas: (a) the type of evidence supporting assertions about human behavior, including examination of both confirmatory and disconfirmatory evidence, identifying evidence as causal vs. correlational; (b) the multiple, interacting variables that influence behavior; (c) ethics in research and practice; (d) the developmental perspective across the lifespan.
  6. Psychology majors will demonstrate outside of the classroom their motivation for learning and their ability to work professionally with others by participating extensively in cocurricular activities during their junior and senior years,and/or by obtaining admission to psychology graduate school or relevant employment.

Sociology Courses

Sociology, one of the social sciences, studies the ways humans influence each other through social groups, organizations, families, communities, and societies. Sociologists investigate social change aswell as social relationships in a variety of contexts, from hospitals to activist organizations, prisons to school, families to political movements.

Sociology provides students with the tools to examine the social and cultural dimensions of mass society and to analyze social justice issues. Understanding how society works and how people relate within it is increasingly critical to effective functioning in the world. Sociology courses are required for a number of majors; many courses fulfill Benedictine Liberal Arts requirements.
Department Chair:GeraldHenkel-Johnson,Psy.D.