Faculty and Staff | School of Nursing

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Faculty listing

Email information is followed by @css.edu unless otherwise noted.

Position: Professor/Dean, SON
Department: SON Admin
Phone: (218) 723-6021
E-Mail: janderson16@css.edu
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
E-Mail: calajoki@css.edu

My MSN specialized in Nursing Education and my teaching interests include the adult learner and creative teaching strategies such as the online learning environment. My nursing experience includes medical/surgical, emergency nursing, obstetrics - including labor and delivery, newborn care, and postpartum care - and occupational health and wellness nursing. I remain connected to obstetrics through teaching a childbirth and breastfeeding education class to expectant mothers.

I am raising my family in a rural community and have a passion for quality rural health care that meets the needs of all community members. I am a hockey mom who loves spending time with my husband and children on our boat and camping - we try to laugh with each other every single day.

Statement of Teaching Philosophy

My teaching philosophy is based on the concept that learning needs to be centered on each individual student while encouraging them to be self-motivated to maximize their learning opportunities. My role as a learner-centered instructor is to foster a positive learning environment that facilitates student learning through the use of multiple types of teaching exercises and activities (Blumberg, 2009). Active participation in learning encourages students to become critical thinkers which is an essential part of the nursing process that cannot be learned by instructors telling students what they need to know, rather this skill is built through student interaction in classroom activities that builds on students knowledge (Billings Halstead, 2009).

I believe personal interaction with all students and open communication that includes student-teacher dialogue creates opportunities for learning that cannot be reached through basic lecture format. Not only will I encourage open communication within the classroom setting, I will also put forth communication that is clear and concise so all students are aware of what they can expect from me as their instructor as well as what I will expect from them as the learner. I plan to incorporate a humanistic approach to my teaching style and will expect students to do the same while they are learning as this type of education encourages honesty, integrity, respect, caring, and accepting responsibility (Billings & Halstead, 2009). Using a learner-centered model with a humanistic approach encourages students of all diversities to be actively involved in classroom discussions through the use of personal stories and experiences - all of which encourage me as the instructor to be an ongoing learner. As an equal partner in the learning process, I will maintain a strong work ethic and high professional standards while remaining passionate about the field of nursing and understanding of my students individual needs and desires.


Billings, D. M., & Halstead, J. A. (2009). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (3rd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.

Blumberg, P. (2009). Developing learner-centered teaching. San Fransisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Position: Skills and Simulation Tech
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6650
E-Mail: randerson8@css.edu
In my position as the skills and simulation tech for the undergraduate and graduate nursing programs at the Duluth campus, I work to ensure that the supplies, equipment, and lab spaces are ready for faculty and students to utilize each day. I also occasionally have the opportunity to lend support to the St. Cloud campus in a similar capacity. I will become a graduate of Columbia Southern University with a B.S. in Occupational Safety and Health in the Fall of 2016. I have proudly served in the U.S. Navy Reserve as a Hospital Corpsman, and in the U.S. Coast Guard as a Food Service Specialist. 
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6279
E-Mail: SBarlass@css.edu
Position: Admin Spec, Post-Bac NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6546
E-Mail: lbeck5@css.edu
Position: Asst Prof, Post Bac Nursing
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
E-Mail: lbisila@css.edu
Position: Professor, NSG
Department: DNP
Phone: (218) 723-6624
E-Mail: PBjorklu@css.edu
Name:  Pamela Bjorklund 
Credentials:  PhD, APRN, PMHNP-BC, CNS-BC

Positions Held at CSS
2000 – Present                   
Professor, TENURED
Department of Graduate Nursing, School of Nursing
College of St. Scholastica, Duluth MN
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner Track (PMHNP) in the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) program, including ethics in health care, DNP clinical project courses, theorizing nursing practice, psychopharmacology, assessment and management of psychiatric disorders in adult clients, PMHNP preceptorship, theories of human development, and theoretical foundations of advanced practice psychiatric-mental health nursing.
2001 – Present
Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner/Clinical Nurse Specialist
Student Health Service / 8 hours per week
College of St. Scholastica, Duluth MN
Psychiatric services, including diagnostic evaluations, medication management, and supportive psychotherapy with college students.
Current Responsibilities
I teach courses in the PMHNP track, along with the healthcare ethics, theorizing nursing ethics, theories of human development, and clinical project courses in the DNP program. I provide psychiatric services 8 hours per week to CSS students in the Student Health Service. I currently serve as Chair of the Graduate Curriculum Committee and the Department of Graduate Nursing Curriculum Subcommittee. I am past Chair and Vice Chair of the Faculty Assembly and Steering Committee of the Faculty Assembly. I am engaged in ongoing scholarship, research, and clinical practice. Scholarship interests focus on nursing philosophy, nursing ethics, and psychiatric-mental health nursing. Scholarly efforts have included assisting graduate students in getting their Master’s and DNP Clinical Projects published.
Teaching Award
Recipient of the Max H. Lavine Award for Teaching Excellence, 2009.
Publications and Research
 2002 – 2006
PhD Dissertation                                        
Taking Responsibility: Toward an Understanding of Morality in Practice                                            

An Ethnographic Investigation of the Social Construction of Responsibility in the Residential Dialectical Behavior Therapy of Women Diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder
Description:Over the course of a full year, data from participant observation and from formal and informal, group and individual interviewing were gathered from the all-female residents and staff of a unique, intensive, psychiatric residential treatment facility that applied dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in a residential context to women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This naturalistic (ethnographic) inquiry into the social construction of responsibility in one very particular geography of care aimed to identify, describe, explore and understand the social processes involved in taking responsibility for “a life worth living,” which was the expressed mission of this social group. Ultimately, the study aimed to examine the kind of moral life sustained and reproduced in this mode of psychiatric treatment in order to answer the question: What kind of moral life is this? An important assumption of this project was that morality is not socially modular; that is, it is embedded in social practices, particularly practices of responsibility that assign, allot, define, or deflect responsibilities related to who must do what for whom, at what cost and with what benefit, and who is privileged to deflect or be exempt from such responsibility.
Status: Dissemination of results in progress. Chapters two and three published in Issues in Mental Health Nursing and Advances in Nursing Science, respectively. Further dissemination of results in book and/or manuscript form is pending.
Winner, 'Best' Dissertation Award
Category: Social and Behavioral Sciences and Education
University of Minnesota, 2006 – 2007

Nominated by the University of Minnesota in 2008 for the National Council of Graduate Schools' 'Best'  Disseration Award.
General Interests: Nursing Philosophy, Nursing Ethics, Nursing Humanities, Psychiatry and Women
Bjorklund, P. (2016). Commentary on the impact of digital technology on brain development and the capacity for empathy. Advances in Nursing Science, 39(1), 71-84.
Bjorklund, P. (2014). Assessment and diagnosis. In K. Wheeler (Ed.) (pp. 95-168), Psychotherapy for the advanced practice nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Publishing.
Bjorklund, P. (2013). Ethical considerations of care and research in mental health. In A. Peirce and J. Smith (Eds.) (pp. 129-171), Ethical and legal issues for doctoral nursing students. Lancaster, PA: DEStech Publications, Inc.
Maki, M., & Bjorklund, P. (2013). Improving cardiovascular disease screening in community mental health centers. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 49(3), 179-186.
Quass, B., & Bjorklund, P. (2012). Start-up of a simulation center in an acute care hospital. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 43(6), 277-283.
Bjorklund, P. (2010, May). Give nurses more 'moral space' in patient care decisions. The College of St. Scholastica Times, 39, 33.
Lawrence, D., Alleckson, D., & Bjorklund, P. (2010). Beyond the roadblocks: Transitioning to adulthood with Asperger's disorder. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 24(4), 227-238.
Anderson, K., & Bjorklund, P. (2010). Demystifying federal nursing home regulations to improve geropsychiatric care. Perspectives in Psychiatric Nursing, 46(2), 152-162.

Rausch, D., & Bjorklund, P. (2010). Cutting the costs of constant observation. Journal of Nursing Administration, 40(2), 75-81.

Feczer, D. & Bjorklund, P. (2009). Forever changed: Post-traumatic stress disorder in female military veterans, a case report. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 45(4), 278-291.  

Bjorklund, P. (2008). Volume two: Personal and emotional counseling: Ego strength.In F. T. L. Leong (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.                                                              

Bjorklund, P. (2008). Assessment and diagnosis (chapter 4). In K. Wheeler (Ed.), Basic psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse. St. Louis: Mosby, Inc.

Bjorklund, P. (2006). We need to talk: Response (Letter to the editor). Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 42(2), 158-159.

Bjorklund, P. (2006). Taking responsibility: Towards an understanding of morality in practice. Advances in Nursing Science, 29(2), E56-E73.

Bjorklund, P. (2006). No-man’s-land: Gender bias and social constructivism in the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 27(1), 3-23.

Bjorklund, P. (2005). Can there be a “cosmetic” psychopharmacology? Prozac unplugged: The search for an ontologically distinct cosmetic psychopharmacology. Nursing Philosophy, 6, 131-143.

Bjorklund, P. (2004). ‘There but for the grace of God’: Moral responsibility and mental illness. Nursing Philosophy, 5, 188-200.

Bjorklund, P.  (2004). Invisibility, moral knowledge and nursing work in the writings of Joan Liaschenko and Patricia Rodney. Nursing Ethics, 11(2), 110-121.

Bjorklund, P.  (2003). The certified psychiatric nurse practitioner:  Advanced practice psychiatric nursing reclaimed. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 17(2), 77-87.
Bjorklund, P. (2003). Psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner: Frequently asked questions. Available on The College of St. Scholastica Graduate Nursing Program Website 

Bjorklund, P. (July-Sept, 2000). The Medusa appears: A case study of a narcissistic disturbance. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 36(3), 86-94.

Bjorklund, P. (Jan-Mar, 2000). The assessment of ego strength: Spinning straw into gold. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 36(1), 14-23.

Bjorklund, P. (May 1999). Adopting Asian children: The journey of a lifetime. Chosen Child: International Adoption Magazine, 5, 27-31.

Comments on Teaching
Almost everything I know about teaching I learned from an especially wise and gifted 5th Grade teacher. He, in turn, had been deeply influenced by Henry Trueba, once the Dean of the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Here is what he taught me about good teaching at any level:
First, good teachers have a compassionate disposition. They have an instinct and inclination to care deeply about the welfare and development of other human beings. Their genuine caring for their students inevitably and unmistakably shows itself over time. Content is nothing without compassion.
Second, good teachers have a commitment to equity and are sensitive to institutional structures that work against nontraditional students. These teachers consider the impact on learning of age, class, race, religion (or the lack of it), gender, disability, and other differences; and they challenge any exclusion from opportunity and recognition of those who are different. My own students are old and young and middle-aged. They are urban and rural, religious and non-religious, well-to-do and not. They are single and married and divorced. They are already professionals. They are almost all women. They have children and grandchildren and no children. They are going back to school after 5 years or 25 years. They are quite unlike the traditional undergraduate student. They are different.
Third, good teachers have theoretical flexibility and can shift gears to meet students’ various needs. They don’t adhere to educational ideology. They can recognize a sparrow trying to fly when they see one;* and they achieve their objectives without pushing square pegs into round holes. I resonate with this, because I am a square peg.
Finally, he said, good teachers know that the best way to teach is to model. Their lives are their arguments. “Example is not the main thing in influencing others,” said Albert Schweitzer. “It is the only thing.”  
Awhile ago, I heard a lecture given by the renowned educator, Parker Palmer, who had been asked to talk about the teachers who had most influenced him. He could not remember their names any longer, nor could he remember anything specific that they had taught, nor anything about their courses. What he remembered, and what he says most students remember about their very best teachers, is simply that he “wanted to be like them.” In a nutshell, this statement encapsulates my teaching philosophy.
I think the teachers whom students remember that way are the teachers who not only genuinely care about students but also inspire them. They are the teachers who are both knowledgeable and passionate about their subjects. They are the teachers who can empathize with their students’ struggles while adhering to high standards and insisting their students can think more deeply. Ultimately, it is not enough to be compassionate and flexible, to be equitable and a good role model, to have mastered a body of content, or to be a scholar in one’s field. What is critically important to excellence in teaching is also that one loves one’s subject and loves sharing it with others. That love is the medium that grows enthusiasm, excitement, and inspiration in these Petri dishes we call classrooms. The seeds of that inspiration feed life-long, self-motivated learning.
*The Sparrow
(for a child with Noonan’s syndrome†)
Five times child
We picked you up off the ground
Out of the long grass
Out of the smell of damp leaves
Placed you in a matchbox
full of tissue paper
Fed you milk with an eye-dropper
Took you with us to school
Showed you to our mothers
Bought you a new set of clothes
Found you a nice job in a good office
Gave you the keys to the car
Chose a sensible woman to fall in love
with those brown eyes
Until we realized you were a bird and must have been trying to fly.
                                                            Glenn Colquhoun
                                                            Playing God
†Noonan’s syndrome is a congenital disorder associated with heart disease,
short stature and learning difficulties.
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6103
E-Mail: CBrown2@css.edu

Cynthia Brown’s clinical focus is in public health, nutrition, evidence based practice, and chemical dependency. Her professional Interests  include Community/Public Health, working with underserved & vulnerable populations, nutrition, evidence-based practice & chemical dependency/addiction, and the harm reduction model. Some of her personal interests include walking, reading, scrapbooking and cooking.

Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6771
E-Mail: TBushey@css.edu


Undergraduate: 2005 BA Nursing, College of St Scholastica

Graduate: 2004 ANP, College of St. Scholastica









2011                            2011 Minnesota Rural Health Conference, Duluth, MN

2009                            2009 Academic Electronic Health Record (AEHR) Summer Institute, Duluth, MN

2008-10                       Nursing Summer Internship Orientation St. Mary’s/Duluth Clinic Health System, Duluth, MN

2006                            CHIP-D Case Study Panel Discussion, panel participant




Bushey, T.B. & Johnson, D. (2009). Integrating the academic electronic health record (AEHR) into nursing curriculum: Preparing student nurses for practice. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing.

 Jatoi, A., Rowland, K., Loprinzi, C., Sloan, J., Dahkil, S., MacDonald, N., Gagnon, B., Novotny, P., Mailliard, J., Bushey, T., Nair, S., & Christensen, B. (2004). An eicosapentaenoic acid supplement versus megestrol acetate versus both for patients with cancer-associated wasting: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group and National Cancer Institute of Canada collaborative effort.  Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol 22, No 12, 2469-2476.

 Bushey, T (2013, pending). Pharmacology for Nursing Practice.  Chapter 49 Inhibition of folic acid syntheses: Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim. Mcgraw-Hill.


Peer Review/Poster Presntations

Johnson, D., Bushey, T., Donahue, B., Fauchald, S. K., & McMahon, S. (2009). Electronic Health Record Integration into Nursing Curriculum: Preparing Student Nurses for Practice. Poster presented at the 27th Annual International Nursing Computer and Technology Conference

 Fauchald, S. K., Bushey, T., Donahue, B., Johnson, D., & McMahon, S. (2009). The purposeful integration of an academic electronic health record across nursing curricula. Poster presented at the 2009 Nursing Informatics Congress, Helsinki, Finland.


                       Current Research

Rural Health Information Technology Project: Collaboration for Meaningful Use: Quality through EHR Standardization and Technology (QUEST)

 Bushey, T.B. & Sandahl, S.S.  Investigating the role of professional socialization behaviors in predicting academic success in nursing education: A longitudinal study

 Fauchald, S., Bushey, T., Donahue, B., Johnson, D. & McMahon, S.  Assessing student outcomes of academic electronic health record (AEHR) use

Position: Asst Professor, NSG, Chair
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6020
E-Mail: PByrne@css.edu

My area of specialty lies in the practice of nursing in rural areas. I have worked in arctic Alaska, critical access hospitals, and home health/hospice in remote areas. As healthcare delivery changes, and the role of nursing shifts away from acute care and into chronic disease management and health promotion, rural nurses will be invaluable links to provide quality care. 

My teaching experiences begin in rural Alaska with some of the first distance delivery methods in place. It was quite interesting to teach American Heart Association CPR to Inupiat Eskimo first responders who truly understood how far away you might be from an acute care hospital setting. More recently I developed and taught on-line and traditional LPN classes at Itasca Community College. Working with LPN's made me value the relationships between the levels of nursing and illuminated the emerging importance of the baccalaureuate prepared nurse in the workfoce today.  Currently I teach Leadership courses for the undergraduate nursing program helping students see the complex relationships between healthcare policy, cost of care delivery, and the unique role of each staff nurse as a leader.   All nurses are leaders. 

As the Chair of the Traditional Track in the Undergraduate Nursing Program I seek to inspire our faculty team to find the best way to educate the nurses of the future, teaching students to blend skills in technology with compassionate, holistic, quality care.  We seek to create nurses who are strong patient advocates, nurses who use the Benedictine values as part of their anchor for moral decision making, and finally nurses who are able to seek answers rooted in Evidence Based Practice.  As healthcare becomes increasingly complex, the nurses of the future are called to imagine new delivery care models.  Imagination and problem solving can be stimulated by accessing a liberal arts foundation. 

My outside interests include experimentation in a broad range of textile arts, extensive travel abroad, and the production and cooking of local foods.

Position: Adjunct/Overload, RNBA NSG
Department: Dept of RN to BS Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6623
E-Mail: jcadotte@css.edu
Position: Director, NSG Edu Experience
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6596
E-Mail: MClabaug@css.edu

I manage the clinicals for nursing students in the undergraduate and post-baccauluareate programs. I place students in clinical sites and troubleshoot issues; I interface with the clinical facilities; and I hire and provide basic orientation of adjunct faculty. I also oversee the program-wide testing that is done. As a trained philosopher I teach occasionally in the philosophy department.

Position: Assoc Prof/Fac Lead, Vet Grant
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6154
E-Mail: sconnor1@css.edu

Susan B. Connor is a Registered Nurse (RN) with a passion for patient care and research.  She retired as a Lieutenant Colonel from the United States Air Force in 2004.  Her current position is as an Associate Professor at The College of St. Scholastica in Duluth Minnesota.  She earned a Bachelor of Science in Nursing in 1974 from the University of Colorado, a Master of Science in Nursing from the University of California in 1982, and a Doctorate of Philosophy from the University of Minnesota in 2013.  Dr. Connor’s research interests include vulnerable populations such as mothers and children, disaster response and recovery, and mixed-method designs.  She is an active member of the American Nurses Association, and Sigma Theta Tau.  She authored numerous journal articles and presented several papers at national and international meetings.  Her goals are to continue to develop her skills as a nurse scientist and help grow the next generation of nurse innovators.


Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6008
E-Mail: GDiaz@css.edu
Gina Diaz earned her BSN degree from Philippine Christian University-Mary Johnston College of Nursing in 1982. She came to the United States to work as an RN in 1985. She has 20 years of clinical experience in variety of settings in critical care such as Neuro ICU, Medical-Surgical ICU, Vascular ICU and Open Heart Unit before transitioning into teaching. Gina earned her Master's degree in 2007 (Adult Nurse Practitioner Track) and Post-Master's Certificate in 2011 (Gerontological Nurse Practitioner Track) from The College of St.Scholastica. She taught in the traditional undergraduate (TUG) program from 2003-2007 as an adjunct faculty and became a full time faculty from 2007 to the present. Gina completed her Doctor of Nursing Practice degree in 2015 from The College of St Scholastica.
Gina's focus of practice is gerontological nursing with a goal to motivate nursing students get interested in the care of older adults.  She also developed the Transcultural Nursing-Philippines Experience. This course provides senior nursing students the opportunity to travel to the Philippines for cultural immersion and clinical experience with Filipino nursing students at Mary Johnston College of Nursing in Manila.
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: DNP
E-Mail: sdickey@css.edu
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6534
E-Mail: BDonahue@css.edu

Upon graduating from St. Scholastica with a baccalaureate degree I found myself launched into a variety of wonderful practice experiences.  My early nursing career was focused primarily in the care of the obstetrical and newborn client, as well as with the acutely ill hospitalized adult client, particularly those with cancer.  But the pull back to St. Scholastica and to education in particular became very strong in time, and I decided to pursue a graduate degree as a Clinical Nurse Specialist in Adult Nursing.  This preparation afforded me the incredible opportunity to begin a career that focused on the education of nursing students.  As a faculty-member in the Traditional Undergraduate Program, School of Nursing, I am privileged to work with students in a variety of venues; classroom, skills lab, simulation lab and the clinical environment. 

My philosophy of teaching is to serve as an “experience facilitator” for the students I work with.  Learning experiences occur in the most unexpected and unpredictable ways if one is receptive and curious.  I have quickly come to realize that health care changes much too fast to prepare students for all that they are likely to encounter.  If, however, I can teach students to be an effective lifelong learner, I have succeeded in teaching.    

Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: DNP
Phone: (218) 723-6710
E-Mail: pearley@css.edu
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6134
E-Mail: pebel@css.edu
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Dept of RN to BS Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6006
E-Mail: CGinsber@css.edu

My areas of interest are family nursing, working with underserved populations, geriatrics and trans-cultural nursing.  These passions reveal themselves in the stories I share with students – from the cancer ridden illegal refugee seeking asylum in the US,  to the woman with no pre-natal care who arrived in my clinic ready to give birth, to the homeless teen mom with a multiply handicapped baby.  Engaging the affective domain through story telling helps breach the gap between academics and humanity - the very real needs of our patients within the larger context of family, community, political/economic realities and the globe.

When not teaching, I unwind by writing, spending time with friends, and being replenished by the presence of wind and sky over our Great Lake.

Position: Asst Professor, Post-Bac NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
E-Mail: rherheim@css.edu
Position: Assoc Professor, NSG
Department: Dept of RN to BS Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6222
E-Mail: ajohnson14@css.edu

Position: Associate Professor, NSG
Department: Chair, Non-Traditional Nursing
Phone: 723-62222
E-Mail: ajohnson14@css.edu


Arlene Johnson PhD, RN, CNP, CNE assumed the position of Chair of RN to BS Nursing in fall 2013. She earned a BA in Nursing from the College of St. Scholastica, an MA in Nursing with a Pediatric Nurse Practitioner specialty from the College of St. Catherine, and a PhD in Education, specializing in Teaching and Training Online from Capella University. Her dissertation research, Transition to Online Learning: The Study of a Graduate Nursing Faculty, was published in Nursing Education Perspectives. Dr. Johnson has been the Principal Investigator in multiple research grants.

Why Do I Teach?

As a nursing faculty member for the past 20 years, I have provided instruction to baccalaureate and graduate nursing students. My desire to teach nursing, as well as to practice nursing, stems from my commitment to the nursing profession. I consider it a privilege to be able to share the knowledge and experience that I have gained in my nursing career with students as they prepare to become the next generation of caregivers. As faculty members, we are charged not only with promoting student learning of the scientific facet of nursing, but we must also encourage exploration of how students will exemplify a caring presence to their future patients. I am certified through the National League for Nursing as a Certified Nurse Educator. My goal as a faculty member is to be an excellent role model for students and one who encourages them to perform at their highest potential and represent the nursing profession well. I am very excited to work with students in the RN to BS Nursing program at the College of St. Scholastica.

Position: Admin Asst, Undergrad NSG
Department: SON Admin
Phone: (218) 723-6452
E-Mail: CJohns21@css.edu
Position: Asst Prof, Grad Nursing
Department: DNP
Phone: (218) 733-5920
E-Mail: SJohns14@css.edu
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Dept of RN to BS Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6783
E-Mail: jkantari@css.edu

Julie Kantarik started teaching in the RN to BS Online Nursing Program in the Fall of 2014, bringing seven years of teaching experience to The College of St. Scholastica. She earned an AD in Nursing from Minneapolis Community College, a BA in Nursing from The College of St. Scholastica, and a MS with a major in Nursing from The College of St. Scholastica. Her professional experience as a nurse focused on cardiovascular and gerontological nursing with an interest in chronic disease management. She is passionate about fostering learning for students that decide to continue their education in nursing. She is excited to support The College of St. Scholastica in providing students "Direction for Life."

Position: Assoc Professor, NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
Phone: (218) 625-2784
E-Mail: ckemnitz@css.edu

Dr. Kemnitz has baccalaureate degrees in Biology and Nursing from Carroll University and the University of WIsconsin Oshkosh respectively. He received his PhD in physiology from Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI in 1994 with a specialization in neurophysiology and completed a Masters of Nursing Education in 2015 at Western Governors University. Dr. Kemnitz has extensive collegiate teaching experience in biology and nursing and has been the recipient of several awards and honors including the Max Levine Award for Excellence in Scholarship, the Daisy Award for Teaching Excellence in Nursing, and is a Minnesota Hartford Geriatric Nursing Scholar and FLAG fellow. Nationally, Dr. Kemnitz is a recognized subject matter expert in anatomy & physiology and nursing and is a consultant for the American Council on Education. Dr. Kemnitz has published and presented many articles in basic science and educational practices. He continues to pursue his interests in geriatrics and nursing education. Most recently Dr. Kemnitz was selected as a Sigma Theta Tau International Rising Star for his masters thesis work on nursing student clinical evaluation.

Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-5945
E-Mail: JKnuths@css.edu

Professor Knuths' clinical background includes critical care nursing, healthcare administration and healthcare research.  She teaches the medical- surgical clinical rotation and in the Skills and Simulation Laboratory for the Traditional Undergraduate Nursing program.  Her teaching philosophy includes the understanding that people must be actively engaged in their learning in order to effectively grow in knowledge and skill.  Students also need to be supported with respect and compassion while challenged to reach higher and go farther. Nurses need scientific knowledge, technical skill, and ethical values in addition to the desire to help others in order to be effecive, safe practitioners.  Professor Knuths is pursuing doctoral studies at St. Catherine University in St. Paul, with a research focus in simulation education.

Position: Assoc Professor, GNSG
Department: DNP
Phone: (218) 723-6590
E-Mail: skoski2@css.edu
Position: Asst Prof, Non Trad NSG
Department: Dept of RN to BS Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6569
E-Mail: LKrueger@css.edu
Louisa Krueger started teaching full-time in the RN to BS Online Nursing program in the fall of 2015 after several years of serving as an adjunct educator for the College of St. Scholastica.  She holds a Bachelor’s Degree from Concordia College in Moorhead (Nursing) and Minnesota State University, Moorhead (Community Health Education).  In 2008, she earned her Masters of Arts in Nursing from the College of St. Scholastica as an Adult Health Clinical Nurse Specialist and in 2012 earned a Post-Master’s Certificate as a Family Nurse Practitioner.  Her professional experience includes public health nursing, nursing education and advanced practice nursing in women’s health and hospice.  Louisa is passionate about online education and the role it can play in meeting the continuing education needs of rural nurses throughout our region.  
Position: Admin Spec, Trad UG NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6025
E-Mail: clawler@css.edu
Position: Asst Professor, Post-Bacc Nrsg
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
E-Mail: mlindberg1@css.edu
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-5946
E-Mail: LLindgre@css.edu
Ms. Lindgren’s areas of specialty include holistic nursing practices, public health care, and obstetrical care. She is a certified Family Nurse Practitioner, and is also certified in Healing Touch. Lori has over 20 years of experience serving people who are low income and homeless. For the past 5 years she has taught primarily the theory content for maternal child, integral health, evidence based practice, public health clinical and nutrition. She has taught the sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduate nursing students, as well as the postbaccalaureate nursing students.
The philosophy of holistic and integral care has been a cornerstone for the care that I provide to patients as a nurse and nurse practitioner and I continue to embrace this philosophy as a teacher. Students are more than just students. They bring a unique set of experiences to the classroom. They are individuals with specific needs and gifts. I incorporate their unique experiences into the classroom by asking questions about life experiences and about how to apply other aspects of their education to the current classroom. My teaching philosophy reflects aspects of the integrative model for the School of Nursing and the Benedictine values here at St. Scholastica. The School of Nursing model incorporates the mind, body, and spirit of the person with a focus on an integrative approach to health promotion, a healing journey with illness, and a global perspective with population based health. The skills that are utilized include competence, caring, critical thinking, collaboration and communication. The Benedictine values include community, hospitality, respect, stewardship (social justice) and love of learning. Having students learn about the art and science of nursing, themselves, asking pertinent questions, and paying attention to prevention are ways to reflect this model and these values as it pertains to my teaching philosophy.
Primary Goals in Teaching:
To have students learn the art and science of nursing.
We learn from evidence based practice the ways to provide the most effective care, and yet there is the human element of caring that adds a dimension that is not easily researched. I believe the element of caring is critical to the art and science of nursing, and to my teaching. It is the art of nursing. One way I will demonstrate this in my classroom is by role playing a patient and having students ask me questions and provide teaching/counseling. They soon realize that no two circumstances will be the same. The art of care is the dynamic interplay between two people in the classroom or between nurse and patient.
To have students learn about themselves and embrace their unique nature and gifts.
The holistic, integral philosophy allows me to consider the diverse backgrounds of students and understand their unique gifts to the classroom and to nursing. Diversity is more than the ethnic or cultural origins of a person. For me, diversity is the complex individual experiences, interests, and beliefs of the students. Incorporating these factors into my classroom adds a unique richness to the content being discussed.
To have students learn the art of asking pertinent questions.
Learning the art of asking a question not only incorporates what question to ask and when, but why that question is relevant and most importantly how to ask the question with respectful curiosity. Learning the art of asking pertinent questions will aid the student in self-reflection and self-awareness, which brings us back to the first goal. To know ones limitations and strengths is an important attribute in nursing for many reasons, but primarily to provide safe and appropriate nursing care. Also, learning the art of asking pertinent questions will aid the student in life-long learning. 
To have students learn to pay attention to aspects of prevention as it pertains to health care.
Culturally, our health care system is based on a response to people with illness/disease when it occurs. This response-based approach needs to be reformed. One of the ways that is discussed at various conferences and through literature is to focus on prevention interventions. Nursing texts are primarily written in a way that is a response to the illness. What I attempt to do in the classroom is have students pay attention to what interventions could be applied to prevent the disease/illness for patients. The focus on prevention alerts the students to health care disparities and social issues of a more complex nature instead of only learning how to respond to a person with a health issue. Both prevention and response are important to provide optimal health care to people.
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: DNP
Phone: (218) 733-2249
E-Mail: MMaki@css.edu
Position:  Assistant Professor
Department:  DNP
Email:  mmaki@css.edu
I have been working with the Graduate Department of Nursing since 2005 as an adjunct instructor.  I joined the faculty as a half time Assistant Professor in 2013.  I earned my BA, MA and DNP degrees from the College of St. Scholastica.  I teach clinical psychiatric and mental health courses. 
I am a Family Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner and also work at the Human Development Center.  In my clinical work, I provide psychiatric care for patients of all ages.  I diagnose and treat a wide variety of psychiatric disorders from children to adults with serious and persistent mental illness.  Treatment modalities include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities.
My goal as a teacher is to cultivate students’ love of learning and to challenge them to explore the unfamiliar and less known to them during their time at CSS.  Ultimately, I want to help fill the gap in mental health care by helping students become competent, compassionate, respectful, and empathetic Psychiatric Nurse Practitioners.
Maki, M. & Bjorklund, P. (2013). Improving cardiovascular disease screening in community                                 
     mental health centers.  Psychiatric Perspectives, 3, 179-186.
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6231
E-Mail: SMattson@css.edu

When I started college, I was a business major.  During my sophomore year, I switched to nursing and it was the best decision that I have ever made!  As a graduate of the CSS nursing program, I can appreciate the history and reputation of the College.  Nursing has proven to be a fulfilling career that has taken me in many professional directions.  As a staff nurse on a post-coronary care unit for 10 years, I had the opportunity to care for patients, be a mentor/ preceptor and charge nurse.  I went back to school and received my Master’s degree and worked as an acute care nurse practitioner in cardiology and primary care.  Now, I have the opportunity to share my knowledge and experience with students to help educate a workforce of future professional nurses.
My philosophy of teaching is that, as nurses, we get to care for individuals, with our hands and our hearts, at the most vulnerable times in their lives.  It is a responsibility and privilege that should not be taken lightly.  In order for students to feel confident and competent in caring for patients, we need to prepare them for real-life clinical situations.  My primary responsibility is to coordinate and teach in the skills and simulation labs for the School of Nursing.  Students participate in classes that allow them to practice not only the hands-on skills that they will use in the hospital setting but also to practice professional behaviors and therapeutic communication.   We are able to combine technology, through use of high fidelity, interactive manikins, with the fundamentals of holistic, baccalaureate nursing practice as well as the Benedictine values to engage students in realistic, simulated patient-care experiences.  Students progress through increasingly complex skills from sophomore year when they learn basic health assessment until the senior year when they learn to respond to life-threatening situations. Helping students to integrate nursing theory, critical thinking and technical skills has been my most rewarding career yet.

Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: DNP
Phone: (218) 625-4483
E-Mail: SMcCumbe@css.edu
  • Experienced Advanced Practice Nurse-Nurse Practitioner and Clinical Nurse Specialist.  Extensive clinical experience in public/community health, care of adults and older adults in long term and community settings and care management and care coordination.
  • ANCC Board Certificaitons: Adult NP, Gerontological NP, Adult-Gero Primary Care NP, Family NP, Clinical Nurse Specialist Community/Public Health, Clinical Nurse Specialist Adult Health
  • My teaching philosophy focuses on creating an open classroom rich with feedback and opportunities for interaction and active learning.  My goal as a teacher is to instill a commitment to life learning and openness to reflective practice.
  • Education
  • Doctor of Nursing Practice, University of Minnesota, 2014
  • Post Master's Family Nurse Practitioner Certificate, The College of St. Scholastica, 2003
  • Post Master's Adult Nurse Practitioner Certificate, The College of St. Scholastica, 2001
  • Master of Science, Major-Public Health Nursing, University of Minnesota, 1996
  • Bachelor of Science, Community Health Education, University of Minnesota, 1982
  • Diploma, St. Luke's School of Nursing, 1980
Position: Coord, Educational Exp, NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6025
E-Mail: AMcQuear@css.edu
Position: Asst. Professor, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6004
E-Mail: JNielsen@css.edu

Josey teaches med/surg nursing theory and clinical skills and simulation at the traditional undergraduate level. Josey  has had many years of clinical practice in various adult intensive care settings.
She has been a Critical Care Educator at Rochester Methodist Hospital, Rochester, MN
and taught Critical Care Certification  (CCRN) courses at Rochester Community College. She received a Masters of Science degree from the University of Minnesota with a focus in nursing education.

Josey has also worked with vunerable  populations incarcerated in the St Louis County Jail.
She currently serves on the Advisory Board for the Clean Proram that works with students committed to maintaining sobriety while attending the College of St. Scholastica.

Academic interests include increasing student’s awareness of and competence caring for at risk individuals and groups. She is also committed to incorporating best practice stratagies to teach and measure clinical reasoning skills and essential nursing competencies using simulation.

Josey believes that learning is most successful in a respectful, honest and challenging environment.

Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-7038
E-Mail: PNielsen@css.edu

Patricia Nielsen, known to all of us as "PZ" is celebrating her thirty-fifth year in nursing.  She has a Bachelor's Degree in psychology from Eisenhower College, an Associates Degree in Nursing from the State University of New York - Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, New York, a Master's of Science Degree from Yale University, where she became a Cardiovascular Clinical Nurse Specialist.   After several years of practice PZ completed the Family Nurse Practitioner Program at Regis University in Denver.  PZ started out as a staff nurse in the VA system working on a medical-neurological unit and after a few months, moved into intensive care nursing.  Upon completing her master's degree, PZ held several positions in nursing education and nursing administration.  Her highest level of achievement in that area was as Acting Vice President for Nursing Practice at a private 300 bed hospital in California.  Other parts of her eclectic career that she recalls with great joy include working at a destination ski area in Colorado, providing primary care at a large HMO in the Denver area and now being a faculty member of the Nursing team at the College of St. Scholastica. PZ has received three Bush grants to develop online courses using a WebCT platform and was hired by the Minnesota Partnerships for training to develop an online WebCT based graduate research class. Recently she and a group of post baccalaureate nursing students spent two weeks in Belize providing health care to impoverished indigenous peoples. When asked what she has liked the best, PZ responds, "the patients and the students."

Position: Assoc Professor, NSG
Department: DNP
Phone: (218) 723-5943
E-Mail: KNiska@css.edu

Academic interests extend from teaching about middle range theories that describe advanced nursing practice to teaching about quality improvement approaches that enhance outcomes of advanced nursing practice.  Research interests center on understanding which kinds of nursing interventions facilitate family transitions of Mexican American families in South Texas.  While in South Texas and Arizona each year I enjoy seeing friends and acquaintances once again as well as hiking, birding, and eating regional food.

Position: Asst Professor, Grad Nursing
Department: DNP
E-Mail: colson15@css.edu
Position: Online Student Advisor, RN/BS
Department: Dept of RN to BS Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-5975
E-Mail: POlson@css.edu
Website: View

As an advisor for the Non Traditional Nursing Program, I am responsible for supporting online students from time of acceptance to the College through the time of graduation. I am the student's professional point of contact with the College and to assist students with all academic matters.   I provide an orientation to all new students to ensure they have the information they need to be successful in the online program.

Position: Recruit/Retention Spec, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6944
E-Mail: jpearson3@css.edu
Website: View
In my position as the recruitment/retention specialist for the military veteran nursing program, I work to raise external awareness and provide prospective students with the information they need to determine if the program is a good fit. I also work with current students to make sure they are resourced.
I graduated from the University of Minnesota- Twin Cities with a degree in Professional Strategic Communication, and in my prior position worked as an Account Manager at a digital design agency. Outside of work my hobbies include softball, attending concerts and going to my cabin. 
Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6296
E-Mail: KRengo@css.edu

As a practicing Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner, I have developed a passion for working with people who are living with a variety of mental illnesses. This field of nursing has a lot to offer with it's unique experiences and varied settings. The mentally ill are one of the most underserved populations in the country; and, while the number of people diagnosed with mental illnesses continues to grow, the number of nurses who work with this population are declining.

From an academic perspective, I would like to bring more focus to mental health issues of adults and better educate nursing students to work with them in a clinical setting. Current trends show that many patients in the hospital have a psychiatric illness that coincides with their medical problems and makes it more difficult to provide effective care for them.  Students need to be able to identify these patients and develop nursing interventions specific to their medical and mental health needs to ensure optimal healing.  

I believe that students learn and retain material better if they can find a meaningful connection between the material and their life experiences.  It is that belief that drives my use of active learning in the classroom and clinical settings.  Rather than using a traditional style of lecture, I have students complete the reading and other individual assignments outside of class, so we can focus on applying the material during class.  I provide a variety of real life examples during class to help students make emotional connections with the material being discussed.  In addition, I offer a clinical experience that is guided by nurses working in mental health, so students are able to participate first hand in caring for patients with mental illnesses. 

Position: Instructor, Trad Nursing
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6005
E-Mail: ARestad@css.edu
Position: Assoc Professor, NSG
Department: Postbaccalaureate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6390
E-Mail: SSandahl@css.edu

Chair of the Post-baccalaureate nursing program since 2007.  I am a Certified Nurse Practitioner in pediatrics with over twenty years of pediatric experience.  Teaching interests include adult learners, curriculum development and evaluation, and active, collaborative teaching strategies. Research interests, including doctoral work, include collaborative testing as a learning strategy in nursing education and socialization behaviors of nursing students. Enjoys sewing, reading, and hiking in the north woods with her husband and three dogs.

Position: Asst Professor, NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6780
E-Mail: eschmitz1@css.edu

I am a Certified Nurse Practitioner in Pediatrics with over 15 years of experience working with children, primarily in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. As faculty at CSS I hope to bring my enthusiasm in working with children to the nursing students, teaching them how rewarding, challenging, and exciting the world of pediatrics is! I teach in the traditional undergraduate nursing in a variety of settings including classroom, clinicals, and lab. Outside of work I love spending time with my family, camping, biking, running, and swimming. Graduate: University of Minnesota – Masters of Science in Nursing: Pediatric Nurse Practitioner and Disability Policy and Services Undergraduate: Bethel College – Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Position: NSG Assistant Professor
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6623
E-Mail: dsemmelroth@css.edu
Position: Interim Chair/Asst Prof, NSG
Department: DNP
Phone: (218) 733-2211
E-Mail: PSenk@css.edu

Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing
      University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      Milwaukee, WI

Bachelor of Science in Nursing
      College of St. Teresa
      Winona, MN

Teaching Responsibilities:
Health Care Informatics, Outcomes Research, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Health Program Evaluation, Quality Improvement

Research Interests:
Knowledge representation in a clinical information system and evidence-based practice


Senk, P., & Koski, S. (2016). Chapter 8: The relationship between a quality measure and staffing hours in nursing homes. In Sandefer, R.  Marc, D. Data analytics in healthcare research: Tools and strategies. Chicago, IL: American Health Information Mangement Association.

Senk, P. (2011). A nursing domain model: Prevention of pressure ulcers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Hagle, M., & Senk, P. (2010). Chapter 2: Evidence-Based Practice. In M. Alexander, A. Corrigan, L. Gorski, et al., Infusion nursing: An evidence based approach (3rd  ed.) (pp. 10-21). St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Elsevier.

Senk, P., & Hagle, M. E. (2009). Pressure ulcers in adults in acute care. Knowledge-Based Nursing Initiative. Milwaukee, WI.

Senk, P., & Hagle, M. E. (2009). Moderate sedation in adults in acute care. Knowledge-Based Nursing Initiative. Milwaukee, WI.

Ravvaz, K., Senk, P., Patrick, T., Coenen, A., Kim, T., Zhao, H., Gaudioso, C., Jansen, K., & Lang, N. (2008, November). Mapping nursing concepts to ontologies for evidence-based nursing. Poster session presented at AMIA Conference, Biomedical and Health Informatics: From Foundations to Applications to Policy. Washington, DC.

Hagle, M. E., & Senk, P. (2008). Risk for pressure ulcer in adults in acute care. Knowledge-Based Nursing Initiative. Milwaukee, WI.


Senk, P. An Analysis of peer feedback in an online graduate nursing course. Poster Presentation at the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Commons Conference, Savannah, GA.

Bastain, H., Bjorklund, P., McDonald, A., Senk, P., & McCumber, S. Shifting locations: Reflections on writing-enriched curriculum projects in diverse contexts. Interactive presenation at the International Writing Across the Curriculum conference, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Senk, P., & Kochanski, K. (2009). Preventing Pressure Ulcers in the Acute Care Setting. Interactive Presentation at MetaStar Conference, Wisconsin Dells, WI.

Hagle, M., & Senk, P. (2009). Interpreting and Evaluating Design, Data and Level of Evidence for the Novice. Interactive Workshop at Building Bridges to Research Based Nursing Practice, Milwaukee, WI.

Senk, P., Kochanski, K., & Hansen, M. (2009). Partnering with Patients to Share Healthcare Knowledge: Pressure Ulcer Prevention. Poster Presentation at Building Bridges to Research Based Nursing Practice, Milwaukee, WI.

Hagle, M., & Senk, P. (2008). Interpreting Research and Evaluating Data for the Novice. Interactive Workshop Session presented at Building Bridges to Research Based Nursing Practice, Milwaukee, WI.

Senk, P., & Pearson, A. (2006). Reducing Nosocomial Pressure Ulcers in the Intensive Care Unit. Poster Presentation at Building Bridges to Research Based Nursing Practice, Milwaukee, WI.

Position: NSG Assistant Professor
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6003
E-Mail: ASimek@css.edu
Position: Asst Prof, Grad Nursing, AZ
Department: DNP-AZ
E-Mail: bthomascarter@css.edu
Position: Admin Assistant II, Nursing
Department: SON Admin
Phone: (218) 723-6566
E-Mail: SThores2@css.edu
Position: Adjunct, Post Bac NSG
Department: Traditional Undergraduate Nursing
Phone: (218) 723-6789
E-Mail: gwhite@css.edu
Website: View

I am a Registered Nurse and Veteran with experience in multiple roles including pre-hospital, flight and military medicine, emergency and critical-care nursing, as well as nursing education and leadership. I served in the United States Air Force and Minnesota Air National Guard as both a fixed-wing flight medic and flight and operational medic, and am now a Registered Nurse with the 133rd Airlift Wing as a member of a joint Army and Air Force disaster/mass casualty response unit (CERFP).

My current role at CSS is as the Veteran Clinical Liaison for the Veteran to BS in Nursing program. My job is to serve as the sole clinical instructor for cohorts of Veteran and service-connected nursing students throughout their entire academic progression in the undergraduate nursing program. My goal is to help train Veterans to be excellent nurses who are able to continue to serve their community after their uniformed service to their country is complete. I strongly believe that the formation and use of Veteran cohorts will help provide our students with a sense of community and esprit de corps that many may find lacking as they transition into the civilian world, as well as allow the acknowledgement and inclusion of their very unique experiences and existing skills into their nursing education.

I earned a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Minnesota State University Moorhead in 2014 (after previously working for several years as an Associate Degree Nurse), and will complete a Master of Science in Family Nurse Practice in 2017 from Simmons College in Boston, MA. I am an active member of the Sigma Theta Tau Honor Society of Nursing and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, from whom I currently hold a certification in Adult Acute and Critical Care Nursing.

My hobbies include reading, running, spending time with my young family, and coaching rugby for both the men's and women's teams at the College of St. Scholastica.