An active shooter is a person who appears to be actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a populated area; in most cases active shooters use firearm(s) and there is no pattern or method to their selection of victims. These situations are dynamic and evolve rapidly, demanding immediate deployment of law enforcement resources to stop the shooting and mitigate harm to innocent victims. This document provides guidance to faculty, staff, and students who may be caught in an active shooter situation and describes what to expect from responding police officers.
In general, how you respond to an active shooter will be dictated by the specific circumstances of the encounter, bearing in mind there could be more than one shooter involved in the same situation. If you find yourself involved in an active shooter situation, try to remain calm and use these guidelines to help you plan a strategy for survival.
If an active shooter is outside your building: Proceed to a room that can be locked, close and lock all the windows and doors, and turn off all the lights. If possible, get everyone down on the floor and ensure that no one is visible from outside the room. If the door cannot be locked, barricade the door with tables, desks and other heavy pieces of furniture. One person in the room should call 911 (if you are calling from a College phone, you do not need to dial "9" to get out - just dial 9-1-1), advise the dispatcher as to what is taking place and inform him/her of your location. Remain in place until the police, or a campus administrator known to you, gives the "all clear." Unfamiliar voices may be the shooter attempting to lure victims from their safe place. Do not respond to any voice commands until you can verify with certainty that they are being issued by a police officer.
If an active shooter is in the same building you are: Determine if the room you are in can be locked and follow the same procedure described in the previous paragraph. If your room cannot be locked, determine if there is a nearby location that can be reached safely and secured or if you can safely exit the building. If the door cannot be locked and you are unable to safely leave the building, barricade the door with tables, desks and other heavy pieces of furniture. If you decide to move from your current location, be sure to follow the instructions outlined below.
If an active shooter enters your office or classroom: Try to remain calm. Dial 911, if possible, and alert police to the shooter's location. If you can't speak, leave the line open so the dispatcher can listen to what's taking place. If there is no opportunity for escape or hiding, it might be possible to negotiate with the shooter. Attempting to overpower the shooter with force should be considered a very last resort, after all other options have been exhausted. If the shooter leaves the area, proceed immediately to a safer place and do not touch anything that was in the vicinity of the shooter.
No matter what the circumstances, if you decide to flee during an active shooting situation, make sure you have an escape route and plan in mind. Do not attempt to carry anything while fleeing. Move quickly, keep your hands visible, and follow the instructions of any police officers you may encounter. Do not attempt to remove injured people. Instead, leave wounded victims where they are and notify authorities of their location as soon as possible. Do not try to drive off campus until advised it is safe to do so by police or campus administrators.
What to expect from responding police officers: Police officers responding to an active shooter are trained in a procedure known as Rapid Deployment and proceed immediately to the area in which shots were last heard. Their purpose is to stop the shooting as quickly as possible. The first responding officers will normally be in teams of three (3). They may be dressed in regular patrol uniforms or they may be wearing external bulletproof vests, Kevlar helmets, and other tactical equipment. The officers may be armed with rifles, shotguns, or handguns, and might also be using pepper spray or tear gas to control the situation. Regardless of how they appear, remain calm, do as the officers tell you, and do not be afraid of them. Put down any bags or packages you may be carrying and keep your hands visible at all times. If you know where the shooter is, tell the officers. The first officers to arrive will not stop to aid injured people. Rescue teams composed of other officers and emergency medical personnel will follow the first officers into secured areas to treat and remove injured persons. Keep in mind that even after you have escaped to a safer location, the entire area is still a crime scene. Police will usually not let anyone leave until the situation is fully under control and all witnesses have been identified and questioned. Until you are released, remain at whatever assembly point authorities designate.
Resources you can view to help educate yourself on the basic responses to a threat of violence on campus:
Department of Homeland Security - This video demonstrates possible actions to take if confronted with an active shooter scenario. The instructive video reviews the choices of evacuating, hiding, or, as an option of last resort, challenging the shooter. The video also shows how to assist authorities once law enforcement enters the scene.
On-line training program developed by the Department of Homeland Security called "Active Shooter: What You Can Do". This interactive Web-based independent study course takes about 45 minutes to complete. Go to the upper right hand and click on the Interactive Web-based Course link in the Take This Course box.